IN late 1945, with World War Two moving into history, the FA decided to further build relations with their Russian allies by inviting the famed Dynamo Moscow team to tour the UK. The tour was arranged with the assistance of the Russian embassy in London, and set for November.
The Dynamo squad that toured the U.K.
Prior to leaving Moscow, the Russians, fortified by guest players from CSKA (then CDKA) and Dynamo Leningrad attended a meeting with Joseph Stalin where it was made very clear that they were expected to return triumphant.
Russian football was, in the most part, a mystery to British fans but interest in the tour was unheralded with tickets for all matches selling quickly.
And Dynamo had English roots. The original club from which they grew, Morozowstky, were founded in 1887 by two brothers, Clement and Henry Charnock, who ran a textile business on the outskirts of Moscow.
When the Dynamo team and entourage arrived at Croydon Airport the players were met by a press corps clamouring for interviews, but the players, not used to such attention either refused or answered briefly, quickly earning them the nickname ‘The Silent Ones’.
The Russians were not totally happy with their welcome. “In England, the fatherland of football, we were met rather dryly. Officials of the British federation coldly shook our hands’” said a Russian radio commentator. “The players were taken to the Guards Barracks to be housed but we discovered mould on the walls so we went to the Russian embassy to spend the night.” They were eventually housed in a Russell Square hotel.
Dynamo players feeding the pigeons in Trafalgar Square.
Dynamo came armed with their own food and a list of requests and conditions These included a flat refusal to number their players, the right to refuse invitations to any social functions and an insistence that, while in London, all food had to be provided by the Russian Embassy. Some serious negotiating had to be carried out before the tour went ahead, as planned, with matches against Chelsea, Cardiff City, Arsenal and Glasgow Rangers.
In the days before the opening match, press and public interest grew even stronger, although the potential for the visitors to give their hosts a serious test was met with some cynicism in the English press. “They are not nearly good enough to play our class of professional teams,” sniffed the Daily Express. “Their players are simply a set of earnest amateurs.”
The crowd outside Stamford Bridge.
Fans certainly weren’t put off by the prospect of seeing these ‘earnest amateurs’. On November 13, 1945, people started queuing outside Stamford Bridge at 8am for a 2:30 kick-off. The waiting crowd grew – and grew – and grew. Local public transport ground to a halt. The gates were closed 20 minutes before kick-off with an official 74,496 inside. Touts were asking for, and getting £5 for 10s tickets. Many found alternative ways to get into the ground, crossing railways lines and climbing fences. Others scaled buildings in Fulham Road to glimpse the action.
The Dynamo players meet U.S. Army Chief of Staff Dwight D Eisenhower.
The final actual attendance will never be known but was certainly vastly in excess of the official figure with estimates range from around 100,000 to a slightly unbelievable 200,000.
A slightly bemused Chelsea team with their bouquets.
The game itself lived up to the hype. The Dynamo players presented bouquets to their slightly bemused opponents before kick-off. Chelsea, wearing unfamiliar red shirts had new record signing Tommy Lawton, who said of the flower presentation; “I felt like a film star at a premiere”, up front and two players – Joe Bacuzzi and Jim Taylor – guesting from Fulham.
Fans closing in in the pitch in front of the West Terrace
The hosts started slowly and, perhaps slightly unnerved to see supporters pressed tight to the touchline all around the pitch, initially found it hard to come to terms with the slick passing of the Soviets who hit goalkeeper Vic Woodley’s woodwork three times in the first 10 minutes. “Dynamo were one of the fastest teams I have ever seen in my life,” recalled Lawton later. “The Russians do not dribble. They flash the ball from man to man in bewildering fashion, often while standing still.”
Enjoying the action from any vantage point.
It was the home team, however, who took the lead. A run down the wing by Jimmy Bain was followed by a cross which found Lawton’s head. Lawton nodded down to set up Len Goulden to score and then Reg Williams doubled the advantage when a clearance by Stankevich struck him in the back and rebounded into the goal. Undeterred by the setbacks, Dynamo continued pressing forward, Soloviev missed a penalty and they had another effort disallowed when it rebounded off one of the spectators who were crammed in close to the touchline.
Chelsea ‘keeper Vic Woolley keeps one out.
The scoreline remained the same until the 66th minute when Vassili Kartsev pulled one back for Dynamo then set up Evgeny Archangelski for the equaliser. Chelsea surged back, Kohmich made a string of fine saves before Lawton regained the lead for the hosts with a towering header. In a rousing finish and with the majority of the crowd cheering the Russians on, Vsevolod Bobrov levelled things again and it finished all square.
Fans using all parts of Stamford Bridge’s Shed.
The final equaliser was said to have been five yards offside. Lawton questioned the referee about the decision after the game and was told he had allowed it to stand for ‘diplomatic reasons’ but the majority of observers agreed that the visitors were well worth their draw.
The Cardiff players present their visitors with miner’s lamps.
After returning to the sanctuary of the Russian Embassy, it was off to Wales to face Third Division Cardiff City, the game proving that the tour was arranged as much on a geographical basis as a footballing one. Having been presented with miners’ lamps before kick-off Dynamo proved far too strong for their Welsh hosts running out emphatic 10-1 winners in front of 60,000 fans.
Fans queueing outside White Hart Lane.
The next game was the showpiece of the tour. One of the conditions of Dynamo agreeing to come to Great Britain was that they would play against Arsenal and so they did although because the Ministry of Defence were still occupying Highbury after using it as an air raid precautions centre during the war the match took place at White Hart Lane.
Arsenal beefed up their line-up, including no fewer than six guest players, among them Stanley Matthews and Stan Mortensen from Blackpool and Joe Bacuzzi playing against the visitors for a second time. Dynamo complained about the addition of so many ‘guests’ but the game went ahead.
55,000 fans crammed into White Hart Lane but if they were hoping to see a classic game pitting two different footballing styles against each other they were to be – mostly – disappointed. Thick fog had made it impossible to see across the pitch but the game, refereed by Russian official M. Nikolay Latyshev, went ahead.
Goalmouth action (we think!)
Dynamo took the lead after just 30 seconds of a match often described as farcical. Arsenal roared back scoring three times without reply before the Soviets pulled it back to 3-2 just before half-time.
The second half was even more of a mess. The Russian referee, on the insistence of Dynamo officials, had placed both of his linesmen on one side of the pitch and himself on the other. All managed to miss what appeared to be two blatant offsides as Sergei Soloviev equalised and then Bobrov scored what proved to be the winner. They also failed to notice Arsenal’s George Drury returning to the pitch after being sent off.
Arsenal manager George Allison offered to concede the game but the offer was declined and play went on with a number of players claiming that the visitors had 12 men on the pitch. Play was stopped, the numbers were counted and Dynamo did indeed have an extra player after a ‘mix-up’ when a substitution had been made 20 minutes earlier.
With parity restored Arsenal pressed for an equaliser but Dynamo held on for a momentous 4-3 victory.
After the match, Arsenal captain Bernard Joy said: “It’s a pity that the fog didn’t allow as many spectators to see the game as well as we players saw it because it was really interesting and intense”, whilst Tiger Khomich said: “The fog was so thick that I had no idea what was happening at the other end or who had the ball other than by the roars and hum of the crowd.”
Training at Ibrox
And so, the Russians headed for Glasgow and their final match, the unbeaten record still intact. 92,000 crammed into Ibrox to see the phenomenon that Dynamo had become.
The Rangers programme welcomes the visitors.
Before the match there were signs that relations between hosts and visitors were becoming even less amicable. Dynamo refused Rangers’ request that they be allowed to play a guest player while the home team tried to insist on a Scottish referee but it was Northumbrian Tommy Thompson who officiated.
Throwing your cap in the air to celebrate a goal wouldn’t have been a good idea!
As in all their matches Dynamo shocked the fans before it had even begun, by coming out to warm-up with several balls 15 minutes before kick-off. British fans were used to players marching out two minutes before the game was due to start, lining up and getting on with things.
‘Tiger’ Khomich punches clear against Rangers.
Dynamo totally dominated the first half hour with the home team mostly chasing shadows. Kartsev scored after two minutes ten added a second before Rangers fought their way back into it. Jimmy Smith was brought down in the area (the Russians looked shocked by the decision) but the legendary “Tiger” Khomich saved the resulting penalty, fisting Willie Waddell,’s shot away. before the home team halved the deficit.
The second half saw Rangers take control over a visibly tiring opposition. They appealed for another penalty, the referee turned it down before consulting his linesman and reversing the decision. George Young slammed home the spot-kick, surprising Khomich by taking just a one-step run up before blasting the ball past him and the match finished all-square.
Young, like everyone who had seen or played against Dynamo, was impressed with the opponents. “There were some folk who suggested we get stuck in,” the burly defender said some time later. “What they did not appreciate was that the Russians did not hold the ball long enough for us to tackle them. It was tip and run soccer – played exceedingly well”.
So, the tour was over (despite Aston Villa’s misguided belief that they would also be playing the tourists) and Dynamo returned to Moscow and every player was formally appointed a ‘Hero of the Soviet Union. A year later the USSR joined FIFA and Dynamo, along with neighbours Spartak would become regular visitors over the following decade, along with many other overseas teams as international club matches became an increasingly entertaining part of the British game.
But was the tour a success? None other than George Orwell said after the visit; “if this tour did anything for Anglo-Soviet relations, it could only be to make them slightly worse than before.” From a football perspective, Stanley Matthews, speaking later, said; “The words Dynamo Moscow are associated with the concept of class football.”
The games themselves were a mix of great football, rough play and farce. But over 300,000 fans attended the four matches and most were eager to tell anyone who would listen after; ‘I was there’.